Most permits are applied for at the local level where filming will take place. Bogota and Medellin have local film commissions that handle permitting. Permits for basic shoots take about 2 weeks and are usually free.
In Colombia you can get such a wide variety of locations plus industry infrastructure at such low costs - you are paying less than half of the cost of shooting in the United States.
Crews are non-union. They’re flexible with overtime and turn around times. Heads of departments all speak fluent English.
All the standard camera, grip and lighting equipment is available locally in Colombia.